# [ RadSafe ] Fukushima - "Spewing" 200 million Bq/hr vs. Soil Release of natural Rn-222 from 2 km^2

Miller, Mark L mmiller at sandia.gov
Fri Aug 26 12:13:13 CDT 2011

```Don't forget about the birds that the wind farm propeller blades will kill!

-----Original Message-----
From: Stewart Farber [mailto:SAFarber at optonline.net]
Sent: Thursday, August 25, 2011 6:20 PM
To: The International Radiation Protection (Health Physics) Mailing List
Subject: [ RadSafe ] Fukushima - "Spewing" 200 million Bq/hr vs. Soil Release of natural Rn-222 from 2 km^2

Hello all,
I read an article recently: "Fewer Contaminants Seen Escaping From Japan
Nuclear Plant", Aug. 18, Global Security Newswire. See:
<http://www.globalsecuritynewswire.org/gsn/nw_20110818_8989.php>

This recent article  mentioned that the Fukushima complex was now
releasing 200 million Bq per hour. Most members of the media and public
don't know a Becquerel from a Pickerel, but 200 million of anything must
be a very huge amount that poses a major risk. Right??  How do you make
people understand that 200E6 Bq per se is not the end of the world? Of
course the isotopes and exposure pathways are vital in assessing
significance of any activity released, but let's not go there.

200E6 Bq got me thinking about natural background radiation, and what is
released from soil to air.    Let me know how the following strikes you as
a point of comparison.

An average value for Rn-222 gas flux from the earth's surface [due to the
average concentration of U-238 in soil leading to Rn-222 gas release] is
roughly 30 milliBq/m^2/sec. Do the math and you'll see that give or take,
any random 2  km^2 of the earth's surface will release 200 million Bq per
hour of Rn-222, equal to the total amount of radioactivity being emitted
recently by the nuclear reactors 1, 2, and 3 at Fukushima as it is brought
to a cold shutdown. As the Global Security Newswire article noted the
reactors were "previously hemorrhaging five times that amount" . As we all
know radiation is not released from a facility -- it is either "spewed" or
"hemorrhaged".

Five times more than 200 million Bq would be equal to the routine Rn-222
release by nature from about 10 km^2 - an area 3 km x 3 km - which will
continue due to natural radioactivity for billions of years given the half
life of U-238.

Further, based on average wind farm capacity density  [ about 6.5 MWe per
km^2 ], the 2 km^2 of land currently "spewing" 200 million Bq/hr will
support the wind generation of only about 13 MW of electricity.

An area of land necessary to site and generate 2,000 MW[e] of wind power
[an area of 285 km^2  or 11 miles by 11 miles ] would be needed to equal
the pre-accident combined output of Fukushima 1, 2, and 3. This 285 km^2
of land to site 2,000 MW[e] of wind generation will release about 32
billion Bq of  Rn-222 per hour.  32 billion Bq of Rn-222 per hour from
nature being "spewed" from a windfarm generating 2,000 MWe vs. only about
200 million Bq from Fukushima 1, 2, 3. Do we need to evacuate the area
around any large windfarm?

Thoughts on the above comparisons?

Stewart Farber, MS Public Health
SAFarber at optonline.net

```