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Radiation Research Contents November 19
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Subject: Radiation Research Contents November 1996
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Volume 146, Number 5, November 1996
Table of Contents
Hilmar M. Warenius, Matthew D. Jones and Christopher C. M. Thompson
Exit from G2 Phase after 2 Gy Gamma Irradiation Is Faster in
Radiosensitive Human Cells with High Expression of the RAF1
Proto-oncogene (p. 485)
Cells of human cell lines in vitro with high levels of the protein
product of the RAF1 proto-oncogene are more radiosensitive and exit more
rapidly from a G2/M-phase block caused by 2 Gy gamma irradiation.
Yao-Yu Chuang and Howard L. Liber
Effects of Cell Cycle Position on Ionizing Radiation Mutagenesis. I.
Quantitative Assays of Two Genetic Loci in a Human Lymphoblastoid Cell
Line (p. 494)
Chemically synchronized WTK1 human lymphoblast cells were irradiated in
different phases of the cell cycle. Cells in late G1 to mid-S phase were
most sensitive to radiation-induced mutation at the autosomal thymidine
kinase locus, while cells in G1 phase were most sensitive at the X-linked
hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus.
Iraimoudi S. Ayene, Cameron J. Koch and Robert E. Krisch
Simulation of the Cellular Oxygen Effect with an SV40 DNA Model System
Using DNA Strand Breaks as an End Point (p. 501)
We have investigated the interaction of a reduced thiol (glutathione) and
non-thiol OH radical scavenger (glycerol) in the chemical modification of
radiation damage to SV40 DNA in aqueous solution. Similarity between
oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) observed in our in vitro model system
and OERs observed in cells by others indicate that non-thiol OH radical
scavengers play a major role in the cellular oxygen effect.
J. R. Milligan, C. C. L. Wu, J. Y-Y. Ng, J. A. Aguilera and J. F. Ward
Characterization of the Reaction Rate Coefficient of DNA with the
Hydroxyl Radical (p. 514)
We have measured the second-order rate constant for the reaction of the
hydroxyl radical with DNA as a function of the scavenging capacity of the
solution. The rate constant increases with increasing scavenging
capacity, rising from about 5 x 10^8 dm^3 mol^-1 s^-1 at 10^5 s^-1 to
about 10^10 dm^3 mol^-1 s^-1 at 10^10 s^-1.
K. Chabita, A. Saha, P. C. Mandal, S. N. Bhattacharyya, M. C. Rath and T.
Reactions of OH and e^- aq Adducts of Cytosine and Its Nucleosides or
Nucleotides with Cu(II) Ions in Dilute Aqueous Solutions: A Steady-State
and Pulse Radiolysis Study (p. 514)
Studies on the reactions of OH and e^- aq adducts of cytosine and its
derivatives with Cu(II) ions show that the OH adducts form an
intermediate containing Cu-C bond which decays to give glycol as the
major product, but the e^- aq adducts transfer electron to Cu(II) and the
parent base is regenerated.
D. L. Lundgren, F. F. Hahn, W. C. Griffith, A. F. Hubbs, K. J. Nikula, G.
J. Newton, R. G. Cuddihy and B. B. Boecker
Pulmonary Carcinogenicity of Relatively Low Doses of Beta-Particle
Radiation from Inhaled Cerium-144 Dioxide in Rats (p. 525)
This study was conducted to examine the carcinogenic effects of chronic
beta-particle irradiation of the lung from inhaled beta-particle-emitting
radionuclides. We concluded that the linear risk of lung neoplasms was
constant at a value of approximately 47 excess lung neoplasms per 10^4
rat Gy over a range of 3.6 to 37 Gy.
Kristen J. Nikula, Bruce A. Muggenburg, William C. Griffith, William W.
Carlton, Thomas E. Fritz and Bruce B. Boecker
Biological Effects of Cesium-137 Chloride Injected in Beagle Dogs of
Different Ages (p. 536)
Results of two studies of the toxicity of cesium-137 in the beagle dog
conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Inhalation
Toxicology Research Institute were compared. In general, the early and
late effects were similar in both groups of dogs; however, the design of
the ANL study revealed and age- and gender-related differential
radiosensitivity for early effects.
Vincent Gregoire, Nancy R. Hunter, William A. Brock, Walter N. Hittelman,
William Plunkett and Luka Milas
Improvement in the Therapeutic Ratio of Radiotherapy for a Murine Sarcoma
by Indomethacin plus Fludarabine (p. 548)
Fludarabine, an effective inhibitor of repair of radiation-induced
chromosome breaks, substantially increases the therapeutic ratio of
fractionated-dose radiotherapy for a murine sarcoma.
Jacek Capala, Michael S. Makar and Jeffrey A. Coderre
Accumulation of Boron in Malignant and Normal Cells Incubated In Vitro
with Boronophenylalanime, Mercaptoborane or Boric Acid (p. 554)
A method is described for direct measurement of intracellular drug
concentration in cultured cells. The method is applied to several
boronated compounds in both normal and tumor cell lines.
Junru Wang and Mike E. C. Robbins
Radiation-Induced Alteration of Rat Mesangial Cell Transforming Growth
Factor-Beta and Expression of the Genes Associated with the Extracellular
Matrix (p. 561)
Irradiation of rat mesangial cells in vitro results in alteration in gene
expression both of the isoforms of TGF-beta and some extracellular matrix
genes, i.e. fibronectin and biglycan. The alteration of TGF-beta is
isoform-specific; TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were increased; TGF-beta2
remained unaltered, and TGF-beta3 levels decreased significantly.
Lev M. Rozhdestvensky, Elena N. Shcherbova, Arkady N. Sernichenko and
Alexander A. Konradov
The Phenomenology and Possible Mechanisms of a New Experimental Method
for Accelerating Postirradiation Restoration of Hemopoietic Stem Cell
Potential (p. 569)
Extraction of bone marrow from one or several bones immediately after
irradiation, with or without subsequent incubation for a short period
under suitable conditions, and subsequent reimplantation into the same
organism can reduce the lethal effect of irradiation in a number of
species. The results suggest that there exist some reserves that can be
stimulated to accelerated hemopoietic restoration in an irradiated animal.
Andrzej Wojcik and Christian Streffer
Analysis of the Relationship between Radiosensitivity and Cell Age in
Proliferating Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes (p. 577)
The radiosensitivity of the first cell cycle (irradiation time: 24 h
after stimulation) in mouse lymphocytes was compared to that of later
cell cycles (irradiation time: 48 h) by analyzing chromosomal
aberrations. No significant differences in aberration frequencies were
found between cells irradiated at the two times, indicating that their
radiosensitivity does not differ.
Keiichiro Ishii, Yoshio Hosoi, Shougo Yamada, Tetsuya Ono and Kiyohiko
Decreased Incidence of Thymic Lymphoma in AKR Mice as a Result of
Chronic, Fractionated Low-Dose Total-Body X Irradiation (p. 582)
Male AKR mice were irradiated with 5 cGy three times a week or 15 cGy two
times a week from 11 weeks of age for 40 weeks. The incidence of thymic
lymphoma was 80.5% in sham-irradiated mice, 67.5% in mice irradiated with
5 cGy three times a week and 48.6% in mice irradiated with 15 cGy twice a
Allan J. Franko, Gia-Khanh Nguyen, Janet Sharplin and Richard Vriend
A Comparison of the Ultrastructure of Perfusion-Deficient and Functional
Lung Parenchyma in CBA Mice during the Late Phase after Irradiation (p.
Inadequate perfusion of substantial portions of lung has been proposed as
the principal lesion responsible for late deaths in mice which show
little radiation-induced fibrosis. An ultrastructural study of the
perfused and nonperfused portions of irradiated lung indicates that
insufficient interstitial fibrosis or capillary abnormality is present to
account for lack of perfusion, suggesting that the lesion responsible
occurs in small blood vessels.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
H. H. Rossi and M. Zaider
Comment on the Contribution of Neutrons to the Biological Effect at
Hiroshima (p. 590)
Donald A. Pierce, Yukiko Shimizu, Dale A. Preston, Michael Vaeth and
Response to the Letter of Drs. Rossi and Zaider (p. 591)
Copyright: Radiation Research Society, Oak Brook, Illinois, 1996.