[ RadSafe ] [Nuclear News] Turn off nuclear power, environmentalists urge

Sandy Perle sandyfl at cox.net
Wed Apr 11 11:02:48 CDT 2007


Turn off nuclear power, environmentalists urge
France OKs Launch Of EdF's New Nuclear Plant
Russia may help Egypt build nuclear plant  
Paks nuclear reactor closed
Rosatom and Rusal to build nuclear power plant in Russia
Nuke-Powered Lemmings Flock To The Radioactive Sea
Both Molybdenum and Uranium Vital for Nuclear Reactors
Bottineau water tests positive for radioactive particles...

Turn off nuclear power, environmentalists urge

Group proposes wind farm at shore. They say state could switch off all
nuclear plants by 2020. 

TRENTON (The Express-Times ) Apr 11 -  New Jersey environmentalists detailed
a plan Monday to replace the state's nuclear power facilities by 2020,
combining a more efficient use of energy with cleaner energy alternatives,
such as wind farms at the Jersey Shore. 

The strategy to replace the power generated by the state's nuclear power
plants -- PSEG Nuclear in Salem County and Oyster Creek in Ocean County --
without turning to coal comes as federal officials decide whether to grant
Oyster Creek a 20-year license extension for operation, which would make it
the oldest running nuclear plant in the world. 

"New Jersey can't afford the nuclear option when it has the chance to have
an incredible future through clean energy technology that not only grows the
economy but also makes New Jersey a healthier, safer place to live," said
Jeff Tittel, executive director of the Sierra Club New Jersey Chapter. 

The 49-page report by Environment New Jersey details a plan to reduce energy
consumption at peak times and construct a wind farm at the Jersey Shore to
make up for the 2,900 megawatts of energy that would be lost if the plants
are not re-licensed. 

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission should rule on Oyster Creek's license by
May, or in January of 2008 if the plant challenges federal recommendations
for renewal, according to Diane Screnci, NRC spokeswoman. 

The environmental groups released the report, however, assuming that the
plants are shut down upon their license renewal dates -- 2009 for Oyster
Creek, and 2016 and 2020 for Salem 1 and 2 plants, respectively. 

"To shut a plant down now, we would have to believe that it is not safe to
operate," Screnci explained. "(For license renewal) we look to see that
there are programs and processes in place to manage aging." 

Ray Sotter, spokesman for PJM Interconnection, a regional transmission
organization which markets electricity in 13 states including New Jersey,
said any replacement plan would have to account for the 2-percent annual
increase in energy consumption, the forecast for additional energy
consumption and the reliability of the total plan. 

"Fifteen years ago people didn't have computers in their homes," he said.
"Now, if you're like me, you have several." 

Wind farms, he said, can be unreliable and are not a one-to-one match with
other forms of energy. A reduction in energy consumption may have to be
solidified with mandates. A replacement by 2020, he noted, would require
that a plan begins to take shape now. 

"You get no power out of a plan," he said.

France OKs Launch Of EdF's New Nuclear Plant 

PARIS -(Dow Jones)- The French government issued Wednesday a decree giving
the final green light for the construction of France's 59th nuclear reactor,
in a move that aims to renew and enhance the country's aging nuclear power

The decree was published in the French Official Journal Wednesday.

Based in Flamanville, in the Normandy region, the power plant will be
operated and owned by French state-owned electricity giant Electricite de
France SA ( 1024251.FR) and will use a new-generation, 1,600-megawatt
reactor called " European Pressurized Reactor," or EPR, developed by French
state-owned engineering nuclear company Areva (427583.FR).

The EPR is planned to come into service in 2012, EdF has previously said.

EdF will invest EUR3.3 billion during the five-year construction phase, it
has previously said.

The largest operator of nuclear power plants in the world, EdF derives more
than 80% of its electricity from 58 nuclear plants in France.

Russia may help Egypt build nuclear plant  
CAIRO, April 10 (UPI) -- Moscow and Cairo may collaborate on Egypt's new
plans to build nuclear power plants to fuel its electricity demand. 
Russia's minister of energy and industry said Tuesday during a visit to
Cairo the two sides are drafting a civilian nuclear power agreement. 

Egypt announced in September it will restart its nuclear program, halted
after the Chernobyl accident more than 20 years ago. 

"The Federal Agency for Nuclear Power and Egypt's Ministry of Electricity
and Energy are drafting new documents on cooperation in this field," said
Minister Viktor Khristenko. "We believe this not only corresponds to the
spirit of our relations, but is also in line with the understanding of
prospects for energy development in the long term." 

Russian news agency Novosti reports Egypt plans to build three 600 megawatt
nuclear plants. Last September, Egyptian Energy Minister Hassan Younes said
a 1,000-megawatt nuclear plant will be built along the Mediterranean coast. 

The BBC reports Egypt's energy shortage has increased as consumption goes up
by 7 percent annually on average. 

The International Atomic Energy Agency, the U.N. nuclear watchdog, has been
investigating Egypt for not declaring atomic energy research. But both the
IAEA and Egypt said the research wasn't for weapons purposes and said the
failure could have resulted from miscommunication over what Egypt is
required to report to international monitors. 

Egypt has signed the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and is calling for a
nuclear weapons-free Middle East. There are no official nuclear powers in
the area, though Israel will not confirm or deny allegations it has amassed
an arsenal.

Paks nuclear reactor closed 
April 11, 2007 - Hungary's nuclear power plant at Paks closed down its
number 2 reactor block last week, due to a "non-hazardous fault in the
system," István Mittler, spokesman for the plant, told media.  

The shut-down was revealed through an article in Hungarian daily Magyar
Nemzet, though authorities said that, as the fault was below the Atomic
Energy Agency's "reporting threshold," there had been no requirement to make
a public announcement.

Mittler told press that the plant had reported the problem to the agency,
but stressed that there was no nuclear hazard resulting from the technical
fault. He added that the Paks plant's business and operational plan allows
for 10 days of stoppage per year for such faults, and that "last week's halt
was part of this."

Paksi Atomerômű Rt, the operator of the nuclear power plant, said it had
profits of Ft2.8bn ($15.2m) in 2006, and expects to double this in 2007, now
that one of its generation blocks is again fully operational. 

CEO József Kovács said that "2006 was a very successful for Paks, and based
on our plans and our results thus far, we stand to surpass these results in

Rosatom and Rusal to build nuclear power plant in Russia

11 Apr 2007 (Hungary Business News) - Russia's nuclear energy agency Rosatom
and Russian aluminum producer Rusal have signed a memorandum on implementing
a number of long-term joint investment programs, including a joint project
in the country's Far East that will be comprised of a nuclear power plant
and an aluminum plant.

In a press release, Rusal commented that the agreement should help to secure
Russia's energy supply and to diversify the country's energy basis. Rosatom
and Rusal began their cooperation in August 2006, and looking forward, hope
to jointly build nuclear power plants and power equipment. Rosatom reported
that a working group is currently preparing a feasibility report on the Far
East project, which is likely to be completed by the end of 2007. The report
will specify the parameters of the nuclear power plant and, once it is
approved, both parties will determine the specific schedule of the project.

Sergey Kiriyenko, head of Rosatom, commented that the agreement is an
important part of Russia's aims to implement an ambitious program of nuclear
energy development, including the modernization of existing nuclear power
plants and the construction of new ones. Alexander Bulygin, Rusal's director
general, said: "Our participation in the development of the Russian nuclear
power industry will not only enhance Russia's energy security but will also
allow us to enlarge and to diversify our energy basis and to adopt modern
international technologies." Rosatom and Rusal said that they believe the
project should be implemented through a private-state partnership. According
to Forbes, the companies' joint project should help Russia to meet its
target of increasing the proportion of power generated from nuclear plants
to a minimum of 25% by 2030. (energy-business-review.com)

Nuke-Powered Lemmings Flock To The Radioactive Sea
Opinion: Harvey Wasserman (Scoop Independent News) 

It's baaaaaack. The fifty-year multi-trillion dollar failure of atomic
energy has resumed its lemming-like march to madness. 


Isn't the definition of insanity the belief that if you do the same thing
again and again you'll somehow get a different result? 

The first commercial reactor opened in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in 1957.
America was promised electricity "too cheap to meter." 

That was a lie. 

America was promised there'd soon be consensus on a safe way to dispose of
high-level radioactive waste. 

That was a lie. 

America was promised private insurance companies would soon indemnify
reactor owners---and the public---against the consequences of a catastrophic

That was a lie. 

America was promised these reactors were "inherently safe." 

Then America was told no fuel had melted at Three Mile Island. 

Lie and lie. 

Then they said nobody was killed at Three Mile Island 

Another lie. 

They said it took six years for acid to eat through to a fraction of an inch
of the steel protecting the Great Lakes from a Chernobyl at Davis-Besse,
Ohio. That's a lie too. 

Now they say they say nukes are economically self-sustaining. 

But de-regulation stuck the public with the capital costs, hid the true
amortization for the long-term expenses of rad waste disposal, plant
decommissioning, on-going health impacts and likely melt-downs by terror and

Now they say nukes can fight global warming. But they ignore huge radon
emissions from uranium mill tailings, huge CO2 emissions from fuel
enrichment, and huge direct heat that results from nuke fission itself, not
to mention the long-term energy costs of decommissioning and waste handling.

All reactors are pre-deployed weapons of mass radioactive destruction for
any willing terrorist. Had the jets that hit the World Trade Center on
9/11/2001 hit nukes instead, the death toll and the (uninsured) economic
losses would be beyond calculation. 

It could be happening as you read this. 

They say a new generation of nukes will be "inherently safe," which is
exactly what they said about the last one. Limited construction experience
with this "new generation" already shows massive cost overruns. There is no
reason to believe these will be any safer, cheaper, cleaner or more reliable
than the last sorry batch. 

They say more reactors won't be a proliferation problem. But they want war
on Iran which wants the Peaceful Atom to give it nuke weapons like those in
India and Pakistan. 

They say the green alternatives won't work, but wind power is the cheapest
form of new generation now being built. The Solartopian array of wind,
solar, bio-fuels, geothermal, ocean thermal and increased conservation and
efficiency are attracting billions in investments all over the world. The
immensely profitable green energy industry is growing at rates of 25-35%. 

Meanwhile, "there isn't enough money in the federal till to change Wall
Street's calculation of the financial risks" for new nukes, says Philip
Clapp of the National Environmental Trust. 

It is impossible to embrace both nuclear power and a free market economy. 

Nuke power cannot exist without massive government subsidies, government
insurance, government promises to deal with radioactive waste, government
security, government blind eyes to basic safety and environmental standards.

A terrorist reactor attack would mean the end of our political rights and
the beginning of martial law, killing all the basic freedoms which have
defined the best of this country. 

America is again being told this can't happen here. It is another lie. 

Yet Clinton, Obama, Pelosi, McCain, Lieberman and other mainstreamers flock
to the nuke madhouse. Al Gore says new nukes must prove themselves
economically (they can't) but that there'll be a "small part" for reactors
in the future, and that the waste problem will be solved. 

There's a move to reverse California's ban on nuke construction pending a
solution to the waste problem. (California has four active reactors near
major earthquake faults). 

Environmental Defense doesn't think "any options should be taken off the

But in 1952 a Blue Ribbon Commission told Harry Truman the future of America
was with solar power. 

Then Dwight Eisenhower embraced the "Peaceful Atom", sinking America in the
most expensive technological failure in human history. 

In 1974 Richard Nixon responded to the Arab Oil Embargo by promising a
thousand US reactors by the year 2000. The No Nukes movement and soaring oil
prices kicked in, and the industry tanked. 

So Jimmy Carter started us up the road to Solartopia ... until Ronald Reagan
ripped the solar panels off the White House roof and forced us into Death

Now Gore has sold the world on the dangers of global warming. But will it
just be used as an excuse to throw more good money at more bad reactors? 

Clearly, there will be no easy end to this madness. 

Basic sanity, ecological truth and the smart green money are all on our

Our challenge is to put them in charge before more Three Mile Islands or
Chernobyls---or a nuclear 9/11---irradiate the asylum. 

Both Molybdenum and Uranium Vital for Nuclear Reactors

James Finch submits: Molybdenum plays a more vital role in the global
nuclear renaissance than you might suspect. Without the silvery white metal,
the world's energy infrastructure would somewhat suffer. But, nuclear power
plants would be set back at least two decades. The new high performance
stainless steels [HPSS] contain as much as 7.5 percent molybdenum and can
add more than three times the life to the world's aging nuclear fleet
condenser tubes.
During the early construction of nuclear power plants, steam condensers
relied upon copper base alloys - brass and copper nickel - for heat transfer
capabilities. These alloys have high coefficients of thermal conductivity
required in steam generation to power nuclear reactor turbines. But
copper-alloyed tubes were being replaced too quickly - with an average life
of eight years - because of sulphide pitting. Hardest hit were those
reactors using polluted seawater to cool their reactors.

Over the past 30 years ago, nuclear utilities slowly began turning to the
super austenitic stainless steels as one way to make their nuclear reactors
last longer. The addition of molybdenum, initially starting with percentage
of less than four percent, helped increase the thermal conductivity lacking
in nickel, iron or steel. At nuclear stations which replaced the copper
alloys with HPSS condenser tubes, 57 percent rated the thermal performance
good and all but one rated it normal. Molybdenum had helped overcome the
thermal hurdle.

A large number of the 190 nuclear reactors, which now utilize HPSS condenser
tubes, reported an average life in excess of 18 years. The longest stainless
steel condenser installation has remained in service more than 26 years,
according to a study done several years ago. According to a report published
in 2000, more than 100 million feet of super-alloy stainless steel tubes
have replaced the older, copper-alloy tubing.

Condensers are large heat exchangers used in nuclear power plants.
Condensers have thousands of tubes horizontally mounted to condense and
recover the steam passing through turbines. Each low-pressure turbine
generally has a condenser, which also maintains a vacuum to optimize the
turbine's efficiency.

Water fouling deposits were cited as a major problem at many reactors,
especially with condenser tubes where seawater or high-chloride brackish
water was the coolant. Pitting corrosion, tube sheet crevice corrosion and
galvanic corrosion put the tubes at risk for leakage. Plugging, mud, or
detritus accumulating in condenser tubes reduce a power plant's efficiency.

Utilities use cleaning systems with small, abrasive sponge-like balls to
keep the tubes clean and test for tube defectives with probing devices. Tube
thinning and corrosion create the opportunity for tube leakage. This can not
be tolerated because chemicals such as sodium and chlorides find their way
into the reactor vessel or steam generator.

Upgrading the steam condenser tubing to stainless steel also plays a vital
role in the 'power uprate' program utilities have used to increase
generating capacity for existing reactors as we recently discussed . The
more advanced uprate program could add up to 20-percent capacity to existing
U.S. nuclear reactors.

There are several HPSS manufacturers for nuclear reactor condensers. The
most prominent in the nuclear sector include Pennsylvania-based ATI
Allegheny Ludlum and Finland's Outokumpu. Each offers austenitic steels with
chromium and nickel composition of between 20 and 25 percent for each alloy
and a range of 6.2 to 7.5 percent molybdenum.

In a paper presented by Jan Olsson of Avesta Sheffield (before the company
was acquired by Outokumpu), he highlighted the results of tests performed on
the new super-austenitic stainless steel, 654 SMOR. Metals comprising this
brand include 25-percent chromium, 22-percent nickel and 7.5-percent
molybdenum. To increase pitting resistance, the manufacturers added up to
0.5-percent nitrogen and three-percent manganese (for make the nitrogen more

As with all pioneering developments - and remember that R & D breakthroughs
have taken place over a two-decade-plus period, manufacturers have
re-designed their metallurgical composition to find the most encouraging
percentages of nickel, chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen. The earlier
stainless steels relied on higher nickel content and lesser percentages of
chromium and molybdenum.

At first, conventional austenitic grades, such as 316L, or high
chromium-ferritic grades, were utilized. Pitting struck down widespread use
of the 316L series and was replaced by higher alloy steels. For example,
others, such as the 254 SMOR stainless steel, began aggressively replacing
the copper alloy tubes and in some cases the 316L series. The 254 is
comprised of 20-percent chromium, 18-percent nickel, 6.2-percent molybdenum
and 0.20-percent nitrogen. It has also offered a high level of corrosion
resistance at desalination plants without becoming cost-prohibitive.

The most significant breakthrough came after various stainless steels were
tested at Scandinavian coastal reactors. In the Avesta paper, the failures
of each lesser austenitic grade were checked off. Significant deficiencies
included insufficient stress corrosion cracking resistance and resistance to
natural seawater. Even titanium tubing was used as an interim measure
because it increased total heat transfer by 17 percent, but the metal failed
to stand up to high velocity steam and suffered 'water droplet erosion.'

According to the study, "The only alloy fully resistant to all test
conditions was 654 SMOR." The results at nuclear power plants in Finland and
Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, were astonishing! Four important conclusions
about this super alloy were reached after the testing.

Its corrosion resistance could cope with the hostile environments existing
inside condenser tubes of desalination plants and power plants. 
Its corrosion resistance was good enough to cop with many other hostile
brine and seawater environments. 
Its erosion resistance was advantageous where it was exposed to high
velocity streams. 
There was no concern about its heat transfer characteristics. 
Nuclear Consumption of Molybdenu
About 48 nuclear reactors are reportedly scheduled for construction by 2013.
It may be possible that up to 100 could be constructed by 2020, depending
upon political and financial climates. The largest number proceeding through
the proposed, planned or construction phases will be located along coastal
areas to service the most populated areas. The greatest numbers of new
constructions are expected from China, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea and
Japan (and possibly the United States).

Existing reactors along coastal areas in Asian countries presently breaks
down as follows: Japan (57), South Korea (26), China and Taiwan (19) and
India (11). Because these are the most prone to seawater or brackish
corrosion, they are also the likely candidates for upgrading existing
condenser tubing to high alloy stainless steel. And their new reactors are
likely going to be constructed along their coasts, requiring the super
austenitic grades. As an aside, of the previously mentioned 190 nuclear
power plants which had replaced their condensers with HPSS, 45 percent used
fresh water as coolant. Those plants chose the high alloy steel as a
'fail-safe' measure to prevent interrupted service or a potential reactor

The United Nations estimates that two-thirds of the planet's population will
be living with water stress by 2025. Global freshwater scarcity may demand
the use of brackish or seawater as nuclear reactor coolant. To prevent the
accompanying corrosion, the higher-percentage molybdenum alloy, specifically
the 654 SMOR, could emerge as the condenser tubing material of choice.
Either the 254 SMOR or the 654 would be utilized in desalination plants
required to overcome water shortages in the hardest hit areas: North Africa,
the Middle East and West Asia.

Typically, nuclear power plant condenser tubing requires approximately
520,000 feet of stainless steel. According to the International Molybdenum
Association [IMOA], larger reactors could utilize up to one million feet of
stainless steel. With the higher molybdenum grades found in the super
alloys, new nuclear reactors could require tens of thousands of metric tons
of molybdenum.

By comparison, nuclear waste containers proposed for the Yucca Mountain
nuclear waste repository were forecast to consume about 15,000 metric tons
of moly. While this project may or may not proceed as planned to the
construction phase, the Nuclear Energy Institute [NEI] has proposed
regionalized storage of spent fuel.

Should comparably designed storage canisters be utilized to 'temporarily'
contain the nuclear waste, it is likely molybdenum will play a key role.
According to the U.S. Government's Energy Citation Database, as published by
the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information,
"Alloys with combined chromium plus molybdenum contents greater than 30
percent were the most resistant to general and local attack." This was the
conclusion reached after corrosion scouring tests were performed on
stainless steel and nickel-based alloys to immobilize high-level,
radioactive waste.

Another aspect where high-percentage molybdenum stainless steel would double
up is with the expansion of nuclear desalination plants. In the past we have
discussed the rise of nuclear desalination across those coastal areas,
requiring far more freshwater than can possibly be transported through other
means. The World Nuclear Association [WNA] has reported of numerous such
desalination projects in progress.

>From nearly every energy project - oil, gas, coal and nuclear, and for
water, molybdenum demand will continue increasing. Super austenitic grades
demand a higher moly content to combat corrosion and provide reliability of
service. Of course, there will be substitution in the face of future supply
shortfalls. In some instances, there are reports the Russians have
substituted vanadium for molybdenum in some of their oil and gas pipelines
to conserve on moly consumption. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has argued for the
substitution of two-percent manganese for every percent of nickel, but in
the lower grade austenitic groups which do not demand the corrosion
resistance of energy projects.

While reviewing the anticipated new projects from the molybdenum mining
sector, we foresee the high probability of supply inadequacy. Aside from
China Moly's Sandaozhuang molybdenum mine, which the company hopes could
produce 28,000 tonnes of molybdenum concentrate this year and perhaps grow
by another 17 percent the following year, there is a paucity of new
molybdenum projects coming fully online before 2009.

Based upon China's voracious appetite for molybdenum - one research firm
estimated compounded annual growth rate over the previous five years at 17
percent, whatever excess moly production comes from China Moly's mining
efforts could very well be domestically consumed.

Future North American molybdenum producers may need to ramp up their
projects to meet the growing demand. During 2006, demand grew above the
historical norm of four percent; most of the consumption came from China.
This is unlikely to stagnate or decrease, and could interfere with North
American and European consumption of molybdenum.

Only one company is scheduled to commence molybdenum mining in 2007, Roca
Mines. Because the company is limited to a small-mining permit, anticipated
production could not exceed three million pounds. By late 2008, or early
2009, Adanac Molybdenum hopes to commence its start-up efforts to reach
eight-figure moly production. Later, Blue Pearl Mining hopes to commence
high-grade molybdenum mining at the Davidson deposit in British Columbia.
Around this time, the Climax molybdenum mine could re-open and begin
production in Colorado. Moly Mines hopes to begin production at the
company's Spinifex project. Possibly, before the decade ends, Idaho General
might commence operations in Nevada. Perhaps before those 48 nuclear
reactors come online, US Energy's moly deposit may be mined in Colorado.

Many of these projects are subject to environmental permitting and/or
financing, putting any material amount of forecasted supply in jeopardy. And
this comes at a time when some experts believe byproduct molybdenum
production at copper mines could be constrained. There are many conditional
requirements which do not necessarily guarantee a reliable supply from the
new breed of primary moly producers. We have witnessed comparable obstacles
in the uranium sector, which has since been accompanied by a hyperbolic
price rally in this metal.

There could come a time in the molybdenum sector when the silvery white
metal could mimic such a breakout scenario. Nearly three years ago, we
featured a forecast of US$100/pound uranium. No one believed that prediction
at the time. On Friday, TradeTech announced a spot price of US$113/pound.

Bottineau water tests positive for radioactive particles...

BOTTINEAU, N.D. (AP) Bottineau officials are blending water
from community wells to meet federal standards for naturally
occurring radioactive particles.

The state Health Department says the north central North Dakota
town was the only city in the state that had the particles on its
drinking water.

State health officials say the water is safe but tests are
being conducted.

Larry Thelen (THEE'-len) is the director of the state Health
Department's drinking water program. He says the Environmental
Protection Agency set standards for particles in 2001.

The E-P-A says the long-term exposure to the radioactive
particles can lead to cancer.

Dave Caroline is a city council member who heads the town's
utilities committee. He says there are no big worries in the town
of about 23-hundred people about the water.

Caroline says the city is trying mix water from its dozen wells
to find a blend that would meet federal standards. He says samples
are sent to a lab in Tennessee but the test results take time.

Caroline says it's unlikely that the city would get help in
funding a treatment plant with the possibility of the Northwest
Area Water Supply project coming online.

The project would pipe Missouri River water to Minot and other
smaller communities, including Bottineau.

Sandy Perle 
Senior Vice President, Technical Operations 
Global Dosimetry Solutions, Inc. 
2652 McGaw Avenue
Irvine, CA 92614

Tel: (949) 296-2306 / (888) 437-1714 Extension 2306 
Tel: (949) 419-1000 Extension 2306
Fax:(949) 296-1144

Global Dosimetry Website: http://www.dosimetry.com/ 
Personal Website: http://sandy-travels.com/ 

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