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what is happening?

This matter has troubled me for some time.

>From the criticisms offered of "ecological" studies, by Ron Kathren,
Dave Scherer, Dan Strom et al., we know that an individual "ecological"
study can never be right; but, how can so many be wrong?

It's almost certain that radiation exposure causes cancer at high doses,
so it's legitimate to look at low dose effects. (In no way is it a
parallel to that silly analogy with galoshes and the flu). Below are
some references to studies that show an inverse effect; namely, lesser
response with larger dose. Why is it that all these "ecological" studies
show this inverse relation? It seems unlikely to me that this persistent
negative relation is due to chance.  Could there be a conspiracy? I
think not.

So, what's happening?

1. Craig,L.; Seidman,H. Leukemia and lymphoma mortality in relation to
cosmic radiation. Blood 17 : 319, 1961.

2. Frigerio,N.A.; Ekerman,K.F.; Stowe,R.S. The Argonne Radiological
Impact Program (ARIP), Part I. Carcinogenic Hazard from Low-Level,
Low-Rate Radiation; ANL/ES-26 Part I, Environmental and Earth Sciences,
Sept. 1973.

3. Frigerio,N.A.; Stowe,R.S.; Carcinogenic and genetic hazard from
background radiation. IAEA Symposium, Biological and Environmental
Effects of Low Level Radiation, vol. 2, pp 285-289, Vienna, 1976.

4. Luckey, T. D., Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing
radiation. Health Physics, v43, 6, pp 771-789, (1982).

5. Haynes,R.M. The distribution of domestic radon concentrations and
lung cancer mortality in England and Wales. Rad. Prot. Dosim., 25, 2, pp
93-96 1988.

6. Wei,L.X.; Zha,Y.R.; Tao ,Z.F.; He,W.H.; Chen,D.Q.; Yuan,Y.L.
Epidemiological investigation of radiological effects in high background
radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Journal of Radiation Research, 31,
1, pp 119-136, 1990.

7. Dousset, M. Radon in dwellings. Aerobiologica 6:36-38, 1990

8. Nambi,K.S.V.; Soman,S.D. Further observations on environmental
radiation and cancer in India. Health Physics, 59, 3, pp 339-344, 1990.

9. Jablon,S.; Hrubec,Z; Boice,Jr.;J.D. Cancer in Populations Living Near
Nuclear Facilities. JAMA, 265, No. 11 p. 1403, March 20, 1991.

10. Chen,D.; Wei,L. Chromosome aberration, cancer mortality and hormetic
phenomena among inhabitants in areas of high background radiation in
China. Journal of Radiation Research, 32 Suppl. 2, pp 46-53, 1991.

11. Shihab-Eldin,A.; Shlyakhter,A.; Wilson,R. Is There a Large Risk of
Radiation? A Critical Review of Pessimistic Claims. Environment
International, 18, pp. 117-151, 1992.

12. Latarjet, R. Radiation carcinogenesis and radiation protection.
Cancer J., 5, pp 23-27, 1992.

13. Biological effects of low level exposures : dose-response
relationships. Edward J. Calabrese, editor. Boca Raton : Lewis
Publishers, c1994.


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